With few exceptions, fundamental distances are available only out to about a thousand parsecs, which is a modest portion of our own Galaxy. For distances beyond that, measures depend upon physical assumptions, that is, the assertion that one recognizes the object in question, and the class of objects is homogeneous enough that its members can be used for meaningful estimation of distance.
Almost all of these physical distance indicators are standard candles. These rely upon recognizing an object as belonging to some class, which has some known absolute magnitude, measuring its apparent magnitude, and using the inverse square law to infer the distance needed to make the "candle" appear at its observed brightness. Some means of accounting for interstellar extinction, which also makes objects appear fainter, is also needed. The difference between absolute and apparent magnitudes is called the distance modulus, and astronomical distances, especially intergalactic ones, are sometimes tabulated in this way.
Physical distance indicators, used on progressively larger distance scales, include:
Main sequence fitting, usually for open clusters of stars
Cepheids and novae
Individual galaxies in clusters of galaxies
The Tully-Fisher relation
Type Ia supernovae
Redshifts and Hubble's Law